The BBC (British) has announced the list of 15 natural terraces which are the most charming in the world, including Halong Bay of Vietnam. According to the BBC, these locations have been shaped over millions of years leaving people with traces of the past and future of the Earth.
1. Halong Bay, Vietnam
The charming scenery of this place is marked with pillars, dome and limestone cave. The rocks were formed from sea level going up and down through 500 million years ago. The bay consists of 1,600 large and small islands, mostly no residence. According to legend, the dragons have created thousands of large and small islands to protect Vietnam from invasion.
Strange cone-shaped towers are found in the Cappadocia region of Turkey. A few million years ago, around the surface has been covered by the dust and ash due to operation of volcanoes. Wind and rain eroded the outer ash, expose hard core sample of basalts forming the chimneys as in fairy tales.
Formerly known as the Richat Structure, The eye of the Sahara is looked down from above like cow’s eyes. Located in the Sahara desert, it is a large dome-shaped rock with the width of 50km. It was thought that is a product of the impact of meteorites, but now it is thought to have formed from rocks that were raised on the ground but then eroded.
Being underwater with the width of 320m and the depth of 125m, the hole is a very attractive scuba diving destination. It is a part of the Belize Barrier Range Mesoamerican Ranges in the Caribbean. It is said that its formation is started from the last ice age, when a limestone karst system collapsed due to sea level variations. The huge stalactites and stalagmites are the place to store precious information about the previous climate on Earth.
Like giant tortoise shells, spherical rocks scattered over New Zealand’s Koekohe beach. The beginning of its formation is from the sediments of the sea floor in 60 million years ago. Carbonaceous substances gradually accumulate around the core, similar to the form of pearls. According to the legend of the Maori, these glabrous blocks are the remnants of dried gourds and eel catch baskets of a canoe drifting to the shore.
The rainbow-like mountains look like a painted work, not a natural terrain. Danxia geomorphology, discovered in Gansu Province, consists of pink sandstone accumulate over millions of years, resembling some pieces which are cut from a multi-layered cake.
The limestone pillars as the vertical blades, some columns are over 10m high, make this place looks like rocky forest. UNESCO has put this place on the list of World Heritage Sites. Rocky forests were formed about 270 million years ago where there was once a shallow sea level. Sandstone and limestone accumulate on the bottom exposed above. After that, the rocks are eroded by wind and water, forming stone pillars with wonderful shape.
It looks like rough, rugged, certainly you will guest it like the surface of the moon. In fact, it is a huge fossil. The Valley of the Moon consists of sediments from 250-200 million years ago. The fossils of some of the most ancient dinosaurs, fish, amphibians, reptiles and more than 100 species of plants have been found here, as well as large stalactites.
The concave stone is 14m high and 110m long. It is a part of the northern part of Hyden Rock, a massive 2.7 billion-year-old granite stratum, located in Hyden Wildlife Park in Western Australia. It is believed that have formed due to the impact of water flowing on granite. The color streaks on its surface are the product of the minerals deposited from the streams that flow through it.
There are about 1,500 limestone mounds in the Bohol province of the Philippines. They are usually covered by grass, but in the dry season they turn brown. In 1988, the chocolate hills were proclaimed as the third National Geological Works of the Philippines.
The huge black-tiled basalt pillars in hexagonal shape rise like the ladders that are closely linked together. There are more than 40 thousand columns like this. They can be formed from volcanic activity away from 50-60 million years ago. The size of the columns is likely to be due to the cooling rate of the effluent lava.
Located in the Colorado Plateau, the Bryce Canyon in southern Utah is a natural outdoor theater with a lot of towering pillars and ‘hoodoo’ blocks that look like tents, fairy chimneys or the pyramids. The native Paiute in this place called it “red rocks standing like men in a bowl-shaped canyon.” The ‘hoodoo’ is formed when the water constantly froze and melted from top to bottom, creating cracks in the sedimentary rocks. Some hoodoos are taller than the 10 floored building.
The Vermillion Cliffs is home to deep canyons and steep cliffs. This is also where the “Wave” (picture) is created from undulating sandstone blocks. The building is located in the Colorado Plateau, with brilliant reds of sandstone. Colors vary from day to day in the various moments.
The cave contains plaster crystals that resemble giant swords. The cave lies 300 m underground, in the Naica Mine in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, discovered when two brothers drill to the ground to look for lead and silver. It is thought that giant crystals have been formed when groundwater containing saturated gypsum flows through caves, which are heated and cooled down by the action of the underlying lava layer. The largest crystals can be over 500,000 years old.
This is one of the giant fractures on the earth’s shell, stretching nearly 1,300km. The fault lines were formed 30 million years ago, when two large tectonic plates, the Pacific Ocean and North America collided. A major earthquake maybe hit the San Andreas fault in the next few decades.